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Anglo-Norman was written and spoken by a small elite following the Norman invasion.After the conquest of Wales by Edward I, Anglo-Norman was introduced as the language of the incoming ruling class in Wales. It survives in a small number of literary texts and in administrative and legal documents. There is some influence, too, of Anglo-Norman on the Welsh language.This example is from a letter of John Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury (about 1230-92) to King Edward I, describing the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd in 1282. Transcription of the audio passage:Sire, sachez ke cues [ceus?] ke furent a la mort Lewelin truverent au plus privé lu de sun cors menue choses ke nus avoms veues; entre les autres choses il i out une lettre deguisé par faus nuns de traysun. E pur co ke vus seyez garni, nus enveyum le transcript de la lettre a le eveske de Ba, e la lettre meymes tient Eadmund de Mortemer, e le privé seel Lewelin, e ces choses vus purrez aver a vostre pleysir, e ço vus maundum pur vus garner, e nun pas pur ce ke nul en seyt grevé, e vus priums ke nul ne sente mort ne mahayn pur nostre maundement, e ke (s) ce ke nus vus maundums seyt secré. English translation:Lord, know that those who were at the death of Llywelyn found in the most secret part of his body some small things which we have seen. Among the other things there was a treasonable letter disguised by false names. An that you may be warned, we send a copy of the letter to the bishop of Bath, and the letter itself Edmund Mortimer has, with Llywelyn's privy seal, and these things you may have at your pleasure. And this we send to warn you, and not that any one should be troubled for it. And we pray that no one my suffer death or mutilation in consequence of our information, and that what we send you may be secret. [Listen to audio transcript of English translation]Source: R. Griffiths (ed.) 1986, 1282. A Collection of Documents (National Library of Wales), 12-13; English translation by Charles Trice Martin.Anglo-Norman reading by Professor David Trotter, Anglo-Norman Dictionary, Aberystwyth University.

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