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Germans walk past the broken shop windows of a Jewish-owned business in Berlin that was destroyed during Kristallnacht, 10 November 1938.

About Kristallnacht.

Kristallnacht, literally, ‘Night of Crystal’, is often referred to as the ‘Night of Broken Glass’. The name refers to violent anti-Jewish pogroms, which took place on 9-10 November 1938 across Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. The violent mobs destroyed hundreds of synagogues and burned and desecrated Jewish religious artifacts. Around 7,500 Jewish-owned businesses, homes, and schools were plundered, and 91 Jews were murdered. During the pogrom, 30,000 Jewish men were arrested in sent to concentration camps.


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archives #86838, Germans pass by the broken shop window of a Jewish-owned business that was destroyed during Kristallnacht (2017) [accessed 19 January 2022]

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Bibliographies: Kristallnacht [accessed 19 January 2022]

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Holocaust Encyclopedia: Kristallnacht (2019) [accessed 19 January 2021]

Depository: National Archives and Records Administration, College Park.

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