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Interview with Ifan Hughes: was born and bred in Cwm Berwyn. His first recollections are helping the forest workers using horses. His father also worked for the forestry. Ifan Hughes gained a licence to drive machinery when he was 21 and was involved in the drainage and ploughing for the forest. Later in life he bought Cwm Berwyn farm back from the forestry and became a wildlife ranger. During the interview, the following topics are discussed: first recollection – helping forest workers as a child; using horse to take small trees to site – helping for no return; first job when forking for the Forestry Commission (FC); lived at Diffwys which was sold to forestry; 1,000 acres per year planted; father also worked in forestry and also rented 200 acres from FC, employed as a shepherd later on, sheep entered plantation during snow drifts and returned; at 21 licence to use machines (ploughing and draining) – landslide danger on slopes when wet, wet bogs, 'winching' technique on wet ground; buying Cwm Berwyn farm back from the forestry; became a ranger with responsibility for wildlife  – Merlin adapted from nesting on ground to nesting in trees, black game, increase in fox population, fish population decreased immensely, remarks on Cam Ceiliog (gorge); trees planted too close to the river; drainage affected rivers – instant flood and drought; change in attitude in the FC; the change from farm to forest; ponies returning to the mountain for Spring and summer; mountain no busy with cars and Landover's.

Index, consent form and notes on interviewee (YF21). All held at the National Library of Wales.

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