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Column 4 of page 3 of this issue has an appeal for more ARP (Air Raid Precautions) volunteers and castigates individuals "who stand idly and allow the willing few to devote their leisure to a cause which affects everyone". Volunteer roles for men and women included wardens, ambulance services, rescue parties, first-aid parties (men), first-aid posts (women), auxiliary fire service, stretcher bearers and “street mothers” – “those women who are prepared to look after children and invalids while the woman of the house does her shopping”.

"After World War One, military experts predicted that in any future war there would be large-scale bombing of the British civilian population, resulting in huge casualties. In April 1937, an Air Raid Wardens' Service was created. By the middle of 1938 about 200,000 people were involved, with another half a million enrolling during the Munich Crisis of September 1938. By the outbreak of war there were more than 1.5 million in the ARP (Air Raid Precautions), or Civil Defence as it was later re-named." (, accessed 19/2/17)

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