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Branas Ucha – a house history


Branas Ucha is stone-built house of medieval origin on the banks of the river Dee. It has a long and fascinating history which began with the descendents of the King of Powys. The house was tree-ring dated in 2009, helping us to discover more about the building and its connections to an important period in Welsh history.


Items in this story

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PENLAN UCHA ENCLOSURE

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Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn and Henrietta Somerset

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Bryndraenog, Beguildy: reconstruction of interior

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Dendro Project Brochure

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Battle of Crogen - commemorative plaque

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Branas Ucha

Tree-ring dating and Welsh cultural heritage




In 2008, the North-west Wales Dendrochronology group began a 4 year community project to discover more about the history and development of 15th, 16th and 17th century houses in north-west Wales. 1485 -1700 was a key period in the development of yeomen farmsteads and gentry estates but little is known of the owners, the patrons of the bards, who laid out much of our admired landscape.



Even less is understood about their dwellings and the economic and other forces which determined when, where and how these homes were built. Until recently there has been no reliable method of dating buildings, as architectural styles could be used over a long period. Tree-ring dating, or dendrochronology, is now available as a tool to date these buildings using samples from original timbers. The growth of trees is affected by weather and climate, and we can map the pattern of their growth by examining the growth-rings: wider in good years, narrower in bad, and with other variations between summer and winter. The tree-ring patterns between two trees grown over the same period and in the same area of the country will match. If we know the date of one, then we know the date of the other. Fortunately for the dating of old buildings, oak displays a good, consistent tree-ring pattern – and oak was the timber of choice for medieval builders in Wales.





(Arch-headed door at Branas Ucha)



Branas Ucha is situated in the fertile Dee valley in the commote of Edeyrnion. Edeyrnion had special status as the commote was ruled by lords who held their lands from the crown by a special tenure called Welsh Barony. One of these Welsh barons lived at Branas Ucha. The house, the focus of this story, was one of the buildings chosen for tree-ring dating.



The results revealed that the present building started life in 1508. The plan of the building and its architectural features told us it had been a medieval hall of lordship status, and further dating told us of its development over the centuries. Research into documents and records told us of the people who lived there and where it fits into social and economic development of Wales.



This all began with Madog ap Maredudd, King of Powys,and the Barons of Edeirnion. But first, the following short description of Welsh medieval hall-houses will set the scene.




Medieval hall-houses




Branas Uchaf was an open-hall house built to a distinctive plan, with a central open hall and storeyed rooms at each end. The entrance to the hall was dramatized by the posts of an aisle-truss. Its aisle-trusses were characteristic of the late-medieval rebuilding of high-status hall-houses after the destruction during Owain Glyndwr's revolt of 1400-1415.




Athrey Hall showing the aisle-truss



These houses were built by the ruling upper classes or uchelwyr. From the earliest times well into the later Middle Ages, Welsh tribal society placed great importance on family lineage. Status and social standing was greatly valued and the laws and customs of Wales recognised different classes of people. An uchelwr (which translates as high man) was a free man of noble ancestry who held land. The nobleman’s hall was a centre of power and a place for feasting and entertainment. They would be patrons of bards who would recite poetry which praised them and their lineage. On entering the hall the visitor’s eye would take the massive decorated wooden truss supporting the roof, the scale and quality of the craftsmanship in the oak trusses reflecting the high status of the occupants and the importance of the hall.





An open fire was lit on the floor beneath this central truss on which large boughs of trees were burnt day and night, the smoke filling the space and escaping through open windows and vents high in the roof.



The first area encountered on entering a medieval house was the cross-passage entry which was commonly separated by a screen from the hall. The cross-passage was entered by a door at the side of the building. On one side of the entry was a room or rooms, often used for storing and preparing food. The hall lay on the opposite side of the cross-passage. It was the main formal and social space in a house, and it served numerous functions including eating, sleeping, celebration and entertainment. There was a seat of honour and a table with benches for eating at the high end of the hall, which may have been marked by a step or canopy, this was the dais. The dais partition had two doorways, leading to inner rooms such as the parlour-bedroom used for sleeping, but also for safeguarding valuable possessions such as deeds and money. The hall may have been decorated with wall hangings such as tapestries although these have not survived, but wall paintings have, depicting birds, animals and foliage.





Wall painting at Althrey Hall



These hall houses ranged in size from large to smaller versions but all were based on the aristocratic hall plan of the fourteenth century. It may be that the use of aisle-trusses was adopted by the builders of later halls because they were a statement of their ancient family lineage. These older aristocratic halls were probably destroyed in Wales during the Glyndwr rebellion but survived elsewhere in the Marches, and fifteenth-century uchelwr would have known ancient aisled halls like the Bishop's Palace at Hereford.



The aisled-truss structure at Branas Ucha suggests that the builder had a strong claim to ancient lineage and regional influence. It would have been built as an assertion of his family status within a culture that placed great value on architectural display and poetic expression. The next chapter sets out the lineage behind this builder of Branas Ucha.




The Barons of Edeirnion




The story of Branas Ucha really starts in 1160 when Madog ap Maredudd, King of Powys died. At that time Powys was a large powerful kingdom covering most of mid-eastern Wales and parts of Shropshire and North Herefordshire. It had its own castles and army to protect it.



(For a quick overview of the line of inheritance, see the list below the pink line[i] )



When he died Madog had at least 10 children by three different women and, because in Wales inheritance law meant that all sons (including illegitimate sons) usually had an equal share in their father’s property, after his death the land was divided between his sons. His youngest and illegitimate son, Owain ‘Brogyntyn' ap Madog was given the lordship of the lands of Dinmael and Edeirnion. (Edeirnion was the division of land or 'cwmwyd' in which Branas is situated).



Owain ‘Brogyntyn’ ap Madog joined with two other Welsh lords to resist the attempts of Henry II upon the independence of Wales. They won a victory over the English in 1165 at the battle of Crogen near Chirk Castle (see the commemmorative plaque above).



Early dagger



Owain ‘Brongyntyn’ had three sons, Bleddyn, Iorwerth and Gruffydd, and when he died he divided his lands between them. Bleddyn inherited Dinmael and part of northern Edeirnion centred on Rûg, Iorwerth inherited Llangar and part of Gwddelwern centred around Gwerclas and the third son, Gruffydd inherited the southern part of Edeirnion, Llandrillo, centred on the hall of Hendwr. 



Together they became the first Barons of Edeirnion.



Hendwr, Crogen and Branas



In Lloyd’s ‘History of the Princes and the Ancient Nobility of Powys Fadog’, this Gruffydd ap Owain is listed as Baron of Yr Hendwr, Branas Uchaf, Branas Isaf, and Gwnodl. Gruffydd had two sons, Madog and Dafydd, and he divided his lands between them on his death.



Dafydd supported Edward I against Llewelyn ap Grufydd, who in retaliation burnt Hendwr and imprisoned Dafydd.  Edward I ordered Llewelyn to let Dafydd have Crogen until Hendwr was rebuilt.



Dafydd’s son Llywellyn inherited Crogen and at sometime the lands of Branas were aligned with Crogen, via the Hendwr estate - as the map above shows, both Hendwr and Crogen are situated near to Branas Uchaf.



Llywellyn’s son Ieuan was named lord of Crogen and Branas and his only child, a daughter, Magred became Lady of Crogen and Branas, inheriting all the lands. She married Rhys ap Llywellyn, lord of Cymer, another descendant of Owain Brogyntyn. Their son, Rhys ab Ieuan became fourth lord of Cymer and Baron of Crogen and Branas. His son Gruffydd ap Rhys inherited both Crogen and Branas, but he split this inheritance between two of his sons, Hywel and Rheinallt, with Hywel getting Crogen and Rheinallt getting Branas. This Rheinallt ap Gruffydd now has just Branas and has five sons. From the records it appears that his third son, Robert inherited Branas. This Robert then built the hall house of Branas Ucha in 1508-9.



The story so far tells of a noble family involved in struggles for territory against the English and against other Welsh rulers. It also shows the ways in which land was divided between sons into smaller and smaller parcels continuing until a descendent owns only the lands of Branas.



 







[i] The following list gives the holders of the lands of Edeirion from Bleddyn ap Cynfyn to Morgan ap Robert who built Branas Ucha in 1508.



 A note on the patronymic naming system in Wales: This was the practice of giving a male child the father's first name as a surname, e.g. Owain "Brogyntyn" ap Madog was the son of Madog ap Maredudd who was the son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn and so on. The 'ap' or 'ab' prefix is a short form of ‘mab’ meaning son, for girls the word ‘ferch’ (daughter) was used. This naming system continued into the 19th century and has recently been revived.



Bleddyn ap Cynfyn son of Cynfyn ap Gwerstan. Bleddyn was Brenin or King of Gwynedd and Powys ruling between 1063-1075. He was the ancestor of all the later princes of Powys. Within a few years of his death, his sons had established themselves as rulers throughout the whole of the province.Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and his brother Rhiwallon fought alongside the Anglo-Saxons against the Norman Invasion.The word ‘Bleddyn’ means wolf. He was killed in 1075 while campaigning in Deheubarth against Rhys ab Owain. With Bleddyn's death, Powys passed to his sons and grandsons in their turn. Gwynedd passed to his cousin. Powys was itself divided between Bleddyn's sons Iorwerth, Cadwgan, and Maredudd. Almost the whole of Powys, as much of Wales, was in Norman hands by 1090. The three sons of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn would lead the resistance and their restoration in Powys. By 1096 they had retaken most of Powys.



Maredudd ap Bleddyn (son of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn). Maredudd was Brenin of Powys. He was the last of his dynasty to rule as kingover the whole of Powys, including the lordshipof Oswestry. His praises were sung by the leading poets of the day.



Madog ap Maredudd (son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn). Madog was Brenin of Powys. He built the church of St Tysilio, Meifod in the twelfth century and his remains are believed to be buried within the grounds. He was Lord of Powys Fadog and of Oswestry and built castles at Oswestry, Caereinion, Carreghofa, and Overton Madoc. He was the last to rule over the whole of Powys. After he died in 1160 the realm was divided into northern and southern principalities. Madog's death enabled Owain Gwynedd to force the homage of Owain Brogyntyn, one of Madog's younger sons, and effectively annex part of northern Powys.



Owain "Brogyntyn" ap Madog (son of Madog ap Maredudd). Owain ‘Brongyntyn’ was Prince of Powys and Lord of Dinmael and Edeirnion. He wasthe youngest and illegitimate son of Madog andwasbrought up at Porkington, near Oswestry, a township known in Welshas Brogyntyn.



Gruffudd ab Owain "Brogyntyn" (son of Owain ‘Brongyntyn’). Gruffudd was Lord of Yr Hendwr. He was born about 1170



Dafydd ap Gruffudd (son of Gruffudd ap Owain ‘Brongyntyn’). He was born about 1200



Llywelyn ap Dafydd (son of Dafydd ap Gruffudd). He was born about 1250. He paid homage to Edward of Carnarvon 1301.



Ieuan ap Llywelyn (son of Llywelyn ap Dafydd). Ieuan was Baron of Crogen and Branas. He was born about 1300



Margred ferch Ieuan (daughter of Ieuan ap Dafydd). She was Lady of Crogen and Branas and married Ieuan ap Llywelyn "Ddû", lord of Cymer



Rhys ab Ieuan (son of Ieuan ap Llwwlyn ‘Ddu’). Rhys was Lord of Cymer.



Gruffudd ap Rhys (son of Rhys ap Ieuan). Gruffydd was Lord of Crogen and Branas Uchaf. He was born about 1400



Rheinallt ap Gruffudd (son of Gruffudd ap Rhys). He was born about 1430



Esquire Robert ap Rheinallt (son of Rheinallt ap Gruffudd). He born about 1470, He built Branas Ucha as a hall house in 1508



Esquire Morgan ap Robert (son of Robert ap Rheinallt). He was born about 1500. He inherited and lived at Branas Ucha.



 






The building of Branas Ucha




We know from the tree-ring dating that Robert ap Rheinallt had the hall house of Branas Ucha built in 1508-09.  He built it as a hall-house but with a dramatic aisle-truss found only in houses of the highest status. These were  large wooden arch-like trusses, or crucks which swept up from the ground to the apex of the roof. These crucks divided the space into bays, supported the heavy stone-tiled roof and impressed with their dramatic scale and craftsmanship.



The house was a single storey building with walls of massive stone blocks. The central open hall was positioned between an inner room and two outer rooms. Branas was situated in a region with a wealth of good carpenters and the quality of the timberwork was very high. There would have been no fireplace or chimney at this stage and the smoke from the central open hearth would have escaped through open windows (no glass) and roof vents. The roof would have been covered with thin slabs of stone or slate. The floor would have been beaten earth. Doors were in the Tudor style, that is, with arched heads. This internal arch-headed doorway was probably from the original build:  





The house did not remain a hall house for long. The tree-ring dating tells us that the first rebuilding of Branas Ucha took place soon after 1514. This was the inner room ceiling which had roll-moulded beams and joists with an opening for a ladder. Later the great chimney and ceiling were inserted.



(Roll-moulded beams)



This fits with the Great Rebuilding of the 16th century when open halls began to fall from fashion for social and practical reasons. There may have been less need for an impressive communal space because of changing social practices. The building of a chimney with its fireplace meant that is was no longer necessary to have an open space to the roof to allow the smoke to escape. A ceiling could be inserted which gave room for an upper living space and thus more private space for the family. We know that a massive and ornate diagonal chimney was built at the end of the house creating a parlour out of the old outer rooms (see below). Ornamental chimneys like this were a symbol of high status in the 16th century, signifying a new and fashionable type of dwelling.





After the chimney was built, a ceiling of counterchanging joists was inserted (see below) and a post-and-panel partition was built between the hall and the inner room. Because the smoke now went up the chimney, glass could now be put into windows. We do not know the size of the household but we know that Robert's son Morgan married Lowri ferch Huw "Gwyn" whose family owned Hendwr and they had children.









The sale of Branas Ucha




As we’ve seen, the family line behind Robert ap Rheinallt was aristocratic and the house itself was of high status. Despite this, the equal division of land between all sons meant that a point was reached where the land held by this family became relatively small. This roughly coincided with the joining of Wales to England by the Tudors under the Act of Union in 1536, which resulted in legal changes such as the introduction of primogeniture whereby the eldest son inherited everything. This might have meant the family was able to retain Branas, and expand their land ownership if these sons married well. Unfortunately, despite apparently good marriages, this did not happen. As early as around 1556, Robert ap Rheinallt was selling land, presumably in order to raise money.







“…Grant by Robert ap Rinald of Branes, co. Merioneth, esquire, and Morgan ap Robert ap Rinald of the same, gentleman, to Owen ap John ap Hoell Vaughan, esquire, of all that their tenement called 'Tythyn Jenkyn' in the town of Pennaran in the parish of Llanullyn in the comote of Penllyn. 25 January, 2 and 3 Philip and Mary. Signed, per me Robt' ap Rynaltt. Morgan ap Robert…”. [c. 1556]







On his death, Robert left Branas to his eldest son Morgan in the new tradition. In his turn, Morgan's eldest son Humphrey ap Morgan inherited. Humphrey married Margred ferch John ‘Wyn’ of Rhiwlas another family with a noble lineage who became the wealthy Price’s of Rhiwlas. Next, Humphrey ap Morgan left the house and lands to his son Morgan. This Morgan married Elizabeth Roberts whose father was a merchant and whose mother came from the Netherlands. He changed his name to Branas and we have his will from 1614. In it he bequeaths ‘…the wardship of the body and lands of my son and heir Humphrey Brannes..’ to his cousin Richard Hughes and he asks this Richard Hughes to ‘...discharge and satisfy the debts specified in the schedule to this will annexed taking the whole profits of all my said lands to that purpose…’. The debts listed at the end of the will are owing to 30 people and total £125, which in today’s value would be approximately £14,000.



In his will, Morgan also makes provision for his wife Elizabeth. In her will of 1634 she leaves her signet (ring) to her daughter and her table, benches and brass pots to her son Humphrey. Her debts are also listed and total £45. Interestingly the seal used in her will is a red lion, presumably made with the signet ring mentioned and possibly an heirloom reflecting the noble ancestry of the family.




The Wynne family and Branas Ucha




William Wynn, who bought BranasUcha in 1636, was a younger son of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir, a direct descendant of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of Gwynedd. It is likely that he lived in the house. His son Richard inherited, and we know that sometime before 1659 new flooring was put in over the ladder stair. It is likely that the staircase was added then as were the mullioned windows with ovolo (from the Latin for egg, meaning rounded) mouldings (see below).





This probably included the blocking of the cross passage doorway to allow for the staircase. It’s tempting to think that this work done was in preparation for Richard’s marriage to the widowed Katherine Woods, daughter of Lord Viscount Bulkeley in 1661. In 1662 Richard is recorded as having 3 hearths for the Hearth Tax, so we can conclude that at least one extra chimney was built during this refit. Barns near the house may have also been built at this time. An interesting footnote is the discovery that also in 1662, Humphrey Branas submitted a petition to the House of Lords in which he “...Complains of the unjust proceedings of William Wynne to whom petitioner mortgaged his estate as a security for a debt, and prays for relief...”, an indication perhaps, of the financial troubles of the Branas family and the ruthlessness of the more successful landowners.







There is an arched tomb against the south wall of Llandrillo church. The tomb is dated 1753 and is that of Katherine Wynne, 'relic' (widow) of Richard Wynne, and daughter of Viscount Bulkeley of Baron Hill, Anglesey.







When he died Richard’s estate went to his sister Sidney since his 3 children had died in infancy. This Sidney married Edward Thelwall, a member of the wealthy landowning family from Plas-y-Ward. Their daughter Jane was born in Gwydir castle. On his death in 1719, with no clear heir, Sir John Wynne bequeathed the entire Wynnstay estate to this great granddaughter Jane Thelwall. Jane married Sir William Williams. Her husband took the name Wynn in honor of his wife's princely heritage, establishing the Williams-Wynn family. Their son Watkin Williams-Wynne was born in 1691, and through his mother, Watkin inherited the Wynnstay estate making him the largest landowner in North Wales.




Branas Ucha - now a tenanted farm




By the 19th century, 40% of the county of Merioneth was owned by just five landowners. This small number of landowners meant that the seats of landed gentry came to have tenant occupants. Branas, being absorbed into the Wynnstay estate had less status and became effectively a simple farmhouse.   The large landowners themselves built stately homes to live in like the Wynnstay mansion at Ruabon.













“….In 1816 Sir Watkin Williams Wynne appoints Thomas Hughes, yeoman as gamekeeper in the manors of Penanlliw and Branas, co. Merioneth…”.













Sometime in the 1740’s, Evan Evans, Gent takes up residence at Branas Ucha. His name appears regularly on Grand Jury lists between 1747 and 1758 and was a prisoner for debt in Newgate Prison, Bristol around 1755.



 By 1768 the rental of Branas Ucha is in the name of John Evans, yeoman, who is farming just over 217 acres at a rent of £80.  It appears that this John Evans owns land as well as renting Branas Ucha, his will of 1804 leaves all his property to wife Dorothy ‘…for her anxious care and attention to me since our marriage..particularly as my daughter and three sons are comfortably settled and seem to require no assistance from me …’ His son Thomas takes over the tenancy of the farm which shrinks to 198 acres when some land is assigned to the neighbouring farm of Tyn y Graig.  Thomas farms here until his death in 1829.  He is also not poor, as we can see by his will in which he leaves land in the parish of Llandderfel to his eldest son and more than £300 to the rest of his children. His mother, Dorothy Evans, the attentive wife of John,  had left £500 in her will of 1820; a substantial amount of money at that time.



The parish registers then show two brothers farming at Branas Ucha – Thomas and Robert Evans. They both marry and have children whose baptisms are recorded as them living at Branas Ucha, but it is Robert Evans and family who are recorded as living here in the 1841 and 1851 censuses.  It’s uncertain how and when the land is sold, but by the time of the tithe survey of 1843, Branas Ucha has shrunk to just 27 acres.  Sometime between 1851 and 1858 there is a new tenant, Thomas Jones who married Robert Evans daughter Dorothy, and is resident when Branas is put up for sale in June 1858 by the Wynnstay estate. The sales particulars note the tenancy of Thomas and Robert Evans at Branas Ucha which is among various lots in a total sale of 5,000 acres. The adjoining landowners are Lord Ward and the Plas Coch and Bodweni estates.



Thomas Jones stays on at Branas Ucha under the new ownership of the Earl of Dudley, and is listed in the 1861 census which now records Branas Ucha as a farm of 300 acres. His nephew Henry Davies, born in Liverpool, is staying there.  When Thomas Jones dies in 1881 this nephew, who has lived with him for a number of years, takes over the farm – Henry Davies stays there until 1884, before moving to the larger farm of Tyvos. A farm sale in 1883 states that he is ‘moving to another place’ and lists the following items for sale:



“50 excellent 2-horned cattle,1 cow and 1 fat cow, 10 heifers going on for 3 yrs old, 4 bullocks coming to 3 years old, 6 heifers coming to 2 years old, 8 bullocks coming to 2 years old, 20 calves suckling, 8 horses and fillies and a cart horse coming to 5 years old, cart horse in foal, attractive mare coming to 5 years old, filly coming to 3 years old, mountain filly in foal, mountain filly coming to 3 years old, sow, 10 piglets, another sow with 6 piglets, 15 stacks of wheat and hay (to be carried away), that is, 3 stacks of hay,  8 stacks of barley, 4 of wheat, 2 acres of turnips and Swedes.”







"...The Corwen to Bala railway, which runs through   Branas Ucha land, was opened in July 1866...."







A widower John Jones, from the adjoining farm of Cilan, takes over Branas Ucha from 1884 till his death in 1898, when Ellis Humphrey Ellis becomes the new tenant and farms there until at least the 1930’s. In both the 1901 and 1911 censuses, he is listed as employing waggoners and the house as having seven rooms.













... In 1895, John Jones won a special prize for a cart horse at an agricultural exhibition at Corwen....



....Ellis Humphrey Ellis was on the Llandrillo parish council in 1899.....













The following table gives an overview of the phases of the building of Branas Ucha and how they link with the people and events.







Building phases of  Branas Ucha





 



Date





 



Description





 





 



People and events







Phase 1





1508-9





The building of important stone-built 6 bay high-status hall-house with an aisle-truss at the cross passage; hall set between inner & outer rooms; dais partition.





 





Robert ap Rheinallt  first built Branas Uchaf as a hall house in 1508-9. His son Morgan inherited.







Phase 2





c. 1514





Ceiling inserted in inner room with roll-moulded beams and joists with opening for ladder.




 


Morgan ap Robert makes the first changes to the house five years after building it. His son Humphrey ap Morgan lives there with his wife Margred ferch John ‘Wyn’. In his turn, Humphrey ap Morgan left the house and lands to his son Morgan who took the surname Branas. His son Humphrey Branas sold the house and lands to William Wynne in 1636.







Phase 3





1637-1659





Improvements which included a new stair, olovo-mullioned windows and additional chimney(s)





 





William Wynne bought Branas from Humphrey Branas in 1636 and quickly made improvements to the house.



Richard Wynne marries Katherine Woods in 1661







Phase 4





1661-1691





The inner room was wainscoted.





 





Richard Wynne marries Katherine Woods in 1661. Watkin Williams-Wynne was born to Jane and William Williams-Wynne in 1691







Phase 5





1764





A kitchen wing was added with a king-post roof.





 





John Evans, yeoman, takes up residence in the 1760’s farming just over 217 acres at a rent of £80. 







 



This story has explained something of the history of Branas ucha and the people who lived there over the half millennium of its existence. It is the first of a series of house histories, based on tree-ring dated houses, to be added to People’s Collection Wales. If you are interested in writing the history of your house, the following sources used might be useful, and when it’s finished, remember to add your house history to the site.



Resources:



·         Houses of the Welsh Countryside, Peter Smith, 1988



.         History of Merioneth Vol II, ed. by J. and Llinos Beverley Smith, 2001



·        Introducing Houses of the Welsh Countryside, Richard Suggett, Greg Stevenson, 2010



·         Dating Old Welsh Houses, the website of the The North-West Wales Dendrochronology Group



·         Engineering Archaeological Services Report 2009/21 for Branas-uchaf, Llandrillo, Denbighshire commissioned by The North West Wales Dendrochronology Project in partnership with RCAHMW.



·         Wills , estate records and Tithe Maps  from the National Library of Waleswhich holds a wealth of other archive material for the whole of Wales



·         Archive material from the National Monuments Record at the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments of Wales which holds the archive for the built heritage of Wales including photographs, maps, surveys and drawings.



·         Welsh Bibliography Online– a resource for researching family pedigrees



·         Research carried out by Janice for the North West Wales Dendrochronology Group at Gwynedd Archives(all counties in Wales have record offices holding archives relating to their county, Archives Wales links their catalogues online)



·         Hearth and Home - The story of the Welsh House, Paul R. Davis, 2009



·         The Medieval Hall – the basis of secular domestic life, 600-1600 AD, Michael Thompson, 1995



·         Settlement and Society in Wales, edited by D. Huw Owen, 1989



·         An Aristocracy in Decline: The Native Welsh Lords After the Edwardian Conquest, A. D. Carr, Welsh History Review. 5. 2. 1970. p. 103 - 129



·         The Barons of Edeyrnion, 1282-1485' A. D. Carr (Unpublished M.A. thesis. University of Wales. 1962)

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